1. Delve into Amsterdam's colourful past
Delve into the past of the city at the Amsterdam Museum (formerly the Amsterdam Historisch Museum), which maps the last eight centuries of urban evolution using quirky found objects like 700-year-old shoes. Next, hop over to the Museum Ons' Lieve Heer op Solder ('Our Lord in the Attic'), a charming hidden church in the Red Light District that has been recently restored to its 17th century glory. Round off your day with a trip to the Joods Historisch Museum in the old Jewish quarter. Housed in four former synagogues, it's crammed with photos, painting and artefacts exploring the history of Judaism in the Netherlands. There is an excellent children's wing, full of interactive exhibits and, predictably, the cafe does a mean bagel.
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2. Step into the postcard city
When you think of Amsterdam, images like clogs, tulips, cheese and windmills spring to mind. But beyond the clichés lie unique sights. Just outside the city, there's the Zaanse Schans museum, detailing the history and symbolism of the clog, and other tradtional crafts. The most famous place to buy tulips is the Bloemenmarkt, along the Singel, and you can find flavourful cheeses at the smart Reypenaer tasting room. Meanwhile, eight windmills remain in Amsterdam, the most famous of which is De Gooyer. It's a great place to sip a beer, as it's right next to the award-winning artisan brewery Brouwerij 't IJ.
3. Lose yourself in a maze of canals
Criss-crossed by bridges, 165 canals encircle the city of Amsterdam and keep the sea at bay. The waterways provide an attractive border to the arty locales of the Museum Quarter, the Jordaan and the Pijp. Within the pockets of land that their eclectic network creates, you can find shops, galleries and authentic cafés. The most picturesque of canals is Prinsengracht, lined by shady trees and funky houseboats. As you wander up to this area, you'll find the tall spire of the Westerkerk and the modest Anne Frank Huis. Smaller canal areas that are worth visiting include the historic Brouwersgracht, one of the city's most desirable residential addresses.
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4. Picnic with the locals
For the perfect picnic, head to the Vondelpark. The largest green space in Amsterdam, the park is named after its best-known poet Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679), whose controversial play Lucifer caused the religious powers of the time to crack down on 'notorious living'. Yet it continues to thrive in the summertime, when people gather to smoke, drink and feast here. The park is also something of a cultural hub, with a number of sculptures including one by Picasso. From June to September, music, dance and kids' activities take place at the Vondelpark Openluchttheater.
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5. Get on your bike
Cycling is a quintessentially Dutch means of getting around Amsterdam. Bicycles have long been part of a thriving democracy in the Netherlands. They played a vital role in the early-20th century campaign to secure women the vote and the absurd 1960s happenings of the Provos art group, when artists used them as a Socialist symbol. So, by getting on your bike, you'll prove yourself a free spirited citizen. There are plenty of places to hire them such as MacBike and Rent-A-Bike, while clear cycle lanes stitch the city together. You can catch all the sights on a bike by booking a guided tour from the Yellow Bike company. Bear in mind some golden rules. Never cycle next to your friend, put your lights on at night and lock your bike up.
6. Eat a raw herring
You simply must try raw herring. We don't want to hear any excuses. The best time to try one is between May and July when the new catch hits the stands, because this doesn't require any extra garnish such as onions and pickles, since the fish's flesh is at its sweetest. There's a quality fish stall or store around most corners. There are stalls all over town, but the best places to buy a herring include the family-run Stubbe's Haring on the Singel Haarlingersluis near Centraal Station. This fish is a bargain snack and makes for an authentic Dutch eating experience.
7. Take a sneaky peek in the Red Light District
Amsterdam's Red Light District has cultivated a notorious reputation on the international stage. But when you visit, you'll discover that the reality is a bit different. It's like a small, cutesy version of Las Vegas, with cheesy sex shops selling blow-ups, massive dildos and other outrageous toys. Situated in a rough triangle formed by the Central Station, it's the oldest part of the city. But its historical significance has been largely obscured by the popularity of window-shopping in the area. Along its streets, the multi-cultural community of prostitutes, junkies, clerics, carpenters and cops freely intermingle, exhibiting a strange kind of social cosiness. As a tourist, of course, you'll be a mere voyeur.
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8. Marvel at the Old Masters
After a delayed comeback, Amsterdam has a world-class art museum to rival that of any major European city in the form of the lavishly restored Rijksmuseum. Original architect Pierre Cuypers, also responsible for the city's Centraal Station, envisaged the place as something of a secular church for the veneration of Rembrandt and pals, and the building's ten-year renovation at the hands of Spanish architect Cruz y Ortiz is also nothing short of masterful, incorporating a light-flooded atrium and a new Asian Pavilion. Over the years, the Rijksmuseum has amassed the country's largest collection of art and artefacts from the 15th century to the present day, but the likes of Rembrandt's The Night Watch and Vermeer's Kitchen Maid (both displayed in the magnificent Gallery of Honour) remain the big hitters. In this new context, you'll be able to see exactly why.
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9. Get your skates on
If you enjoy skating, you'll love Amsterdam. Traditionally in winter, the frozen canals provide a playground for ice-skating locals. Fearless skaters whoosh along narrow city canals at the marathon-style event of Elfstedentocht – a 200km race around Friesland. But due to warm conditions, the race hasn't been held since 1997. In summer, you'll find locals and tourists alike skating through the park. All year round, at 9pm on a Friday night, a group of skating enthusiasts meet opposite in the the Vondelpark to join a 20km, three-hour tour through the night streets. It's called, imaginatively enough, Friday Night Skate and its final destination is the pub.
10. Mix with Moderns at the Stedelijk Museum
In this city, you can mingle with great modern painters. The amazing bathtub-shaped Stedelijk Museum has an amazing collection of 20th and 21st-century artists. It holds pre-war works by Cézanne, Picasso, Matisse and Chagall, plus a selection of paintings and drawings by Malevich. Post-1945 artists include De Kooning, Judd, Lichtenstein, Nauman, Stella and Warhol. Another highlight, of course, is the Van Gogh Museum, which holds 200 paintings and 500 drawings produced by the troubled genius, as well as Japanese paints and works by his one-time collaborator Gauguin. It is housed in a Rietveld building, enlarged with a newer wing by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa.
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11. Have a good rummage
Visit the flea markets to discover the multi-ethnic spirit of Amsterdam. The most famous is the Albert Cuypmarkt, a large general market that snakes through the heart of Pijp. It offers a great insight into Dutch life, selling everything from smoked eel to Surinamese sherbets. Neighbourhoods have their own markets: the Dappermarkt in Oost and the Lindenmarkt in Jordaan are the most authentic. Also in the Jordaan, the Noordermarkt sells organic farmers' produce on Saturdays and hosts an antiques fair on Mondays – which is less touristy than the big, bustling bazaar of the Waterlooplein flea market.
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12. Hit the streets to see cutting-edge art
You don't need to head indoors for your fix of culture: Amsterdam has an active street art scene. Every corner of town is a place to discover images of all shapes and sizes, from freehand graffiti to stencils, sculptures and stickers. Dubbed the city's 'guerilla poet', Laser 3.14 scribbles one-liners over city walls, whereas the brlliant Kamp Seedorf glue football-inspired cut-outs over the urban jungle. Many urban galleries have picked up on the street art scene, including Go Gallery on the stately Prinsengracht, which sells work by The London Police a stone's throw from a giant wall-side example of their monochrome bubble-headed cartoons.
13. Spice things up with an Indonesian
For a touch of spice, order an Indonesian rijsttafel (rice table). Along with the fondue, it's the food of choice for celebratory meals. Its origins lie in the post-war years, when rich Indonesian dishes spiced up the Dutch palette, after the colony was granted independence and the Netherlands welcomed in Indonesian immigrants. Now many venues serve it up. Take your pick from the cheap Surinamese-Indonesian-Chinese snack bars or visit the purveyors of the rijsttafel (rice table), an extravaganza of veggie, fish, and meat, served in small but mouth-watering portions. One of the spiciest place to eat this is a cosy, classy restaurant called Kantjil & de Tijger.
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14. Discover the city's secret garden
At the Begijnhof, a secluded garden and courtyard offers a hidden sanctuary where traffic sounds dim and the bustle of the city fades into the distance. Established as a 14th-century convent, it formerly housed the religious and liberated sisterhood of the Beguines. In the centre of the courtyard stands the Engelse Kerk, the principal place of worship for the local English community. It's worth stepping inside to take a good look at the pulpit panels, designed by Mondrian. Although it's popular with tourists, noise levels never rise above a whisper.
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15. Visit the home of the diarist Anne Frank
Contemplate the tragic history of the Jewish community with a visit to the home of the diarist Anne Frank. Prinsengracht 263 was the canal-side house where the young Jewish girl Anne Frank and her family hid for two years during the Second World War, having fled from persecution in Germany in 1933. A bookcase marks the entrance to the unfurnished rooms of the annexe in which they lived, sustained by the efforts of friends. In the new wing, there's a good exhibition about the persecution of the Jews during the War, and displays charting racism, neo-Fascism and anti-Semitism. To avoid long queues, arrive early in the morning, or after 7pm during the summer, or book a queue-jump ticket on the website.
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16. Drink as the Dutch do
To mingle with the locals, have a drink in a café (or bar). Central to the Dutch way of life, it serves as a home-from-home during the day and a hub of nightlife after darkness falls. Most cafés open in the morning and don't shut until 1am or 3am during weekends. The range of choice means that you'll never be thirsty for long. Twee Zwaantjes and Wynand Fockink are old-school favourites. Prik is a much-loved and bustling gay bar. Away from the neon, several bruin cafés (stained brown after years of smoking) occupy the Jordaan district. Although much of that area has been gentrified, the old-school Café Thijssen (Brouwersgracht 107, 623 8994) remains popular as ever.
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17. Jam up the volume
If you enjoy watching great rock bands stripped down, then Melkweg and Paradiso are Amsterdam's cosiest music venues to visit if you're short on time and money. The cornerstone of the pop and rock music scene is Paradiso, a former church that often hosts several events in one day, due to the high demand. It's a great space at which to watch diverse new talent in intimate surroundings. Similarly, the Melkweg, a former dairy, is home to music of all styles, with decent-sized concert halls that offer a bustling programme. It also houses a theatre, cinema, art gallery and café, and puts on club nights at the weekend.
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18. Move with the music
In the blustery eastern Docklands, you'll find the grand new music theatre Muziekgebouw aan't IJ. Designed by Danish architects 3xNielsen, the state-of-the-art music complex is among the most innovative in Europe. It plays host to the legendary home of jazz, Bimhuis, and a whole slew of the nation's foremost contemporary music ensembles, among them the Asko|Schönberg ensemble and the Amsterdam Sinfonietta. You can choose from a diverse programme of classical and world music, and experience cutting-edge multi-media concerts as well as performances of traditional pieces.
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19. Discover the art of worship
Despite the Bohemian front, religion continues to play a vital role in Dutch life. The city's oldest church is the Oude Kerk, which had 38 altars during its heyday of the mid-1500s. Although its original furnishings were destroyed in the Reformation, it has retained a 15th-century painted wooden roof, along with stained glass windows from the 16th centuries and a mixed Gothic and Renaissance façade above the northern portal. Rembrandt's wife Saskia is buried here. In contrast, the Chinese Fo Guang Shan He Hua Buddhist Temple at Zeedijk (420 2357, www.ibps.nl; open noon-5pm Tue-Sat, 10am-5pm Sun) is a place of cultural enlightenment, with a library and vegetarian restaurant.
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20. Get a snapshot of the art scene
Art comes alive in the picturesque Jordaan district, once home to the city's working class but now the preserve of black-clad gallerists and their hipster charges. Here you'll find about 40 specialist galleries occupying former homes or shops. Edouard Planting Art Photographs displays work chosen by the head curator of Festival Naarden, the oldest photography festival in the Netherlands. At Gallery Fons Welters (Bloemstraat 140, 423 3046), a hands-on art 'Playstation' is bursting with youthful energy. Other Jordaanese galleries displaying contemporary art include the suitably illuminating Torch and Galerie Diana Stigter, whose owner is considered to be the grande dame of the local scene.
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