The only Australian fort to see sea-level action is a must-visit while in Newcastle
This fascinating military site overlooking Nobbys Beach and the Hunter River was completed in 1882 to defend Newcastle against a feared Russian invasion.
Built deep into the hill from hand-mixed concrete, the complex of tunnels, gun emplacements and magazines (ordnance storage rooms) is now open to the public via hourly 45-minute guided tours. Retired personnel such as the eloquent Norman Bowes offer fascinating insights into the fort, such as its part in repelling an attack by a Japanese submarine on June 8, 1942.
View massive cannons, learn of the fates of the Japanese attackers, and Norman might even regale you about his correspondence with Her Majesty the Queen...